Constitutional Amendments for CLAT

Constitutional Amendments for CLAT

First Amendment 1951 ·         Added Ninth Schedule.
Seventh Amendment 1956 ·         Necessitated on account of reorganisation of States on a linguistic basis.
Eighth Amendment 1959 ·         Extended special provisions for reservations of seats for SCs, STs and Anglo-Indians in Lok Sabha and Leg Assemblies for a period of 10 years from 1960 to 1970.
The Ninth Amendment 1960 ·         Gave effect to transfer certain territories to Pakistan following the 1958 Indo-Pak agreement.
The Tenth Amendment 1961 ·         Incorporated Dadra & Nagar Haveli as a UT.
Twelfth Amendment 1962 ·         Incorporated Goa, Daman 7 Diu as a UT.
Thirteenth Amendment 1962 ·         Created Nagaland as a State.
Fourteenth Amendment 1963 ·         Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam, the former French territories were included in the l schedule as UT of Puducherry.
Eighteenth Amendment 1966 ·         Reorganised Punjab into Punjab, Haryana and UT of Chandigarh.
Twenty first Amendment 1967 ·         Included Sindhi as the Fifteenth Regional language.
Twenty second Amendment 1969 ·         Created a sub-state of Meghalaya within Asom.
Twenty third Amendment 1969 ·         Extended the reservation of seats for SC/ST and nomination of Anglo-Indians for further period of 10 years (till 1980).
Twenty sixth Amendment 1971 ·         Abolished the titles and special privileges of former rulers of princely states.
Twenty seventh Amendment 1971 ·         Established Manipur and Tripura as States and Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh as UTs.
Thirty first Amendment 1973 ·         Increased the elective strength of LS from 525 to 545. The upper limit of representatives of States went up from 500 to 525.
Thirty sixth Amendment 1975 ·         Made Sikkim a State.
Thirty eighth Amendment 1975 ·         Provided that the President can make a declaration of emergency, and the promulgation of ordinances by the President, Governors and the Administrative Heads of UTs would be final and could not be challenged in any court. It also authorised the President to declare different kinds of emergencies.
Thirty ninth Amendment 1975 ·         Placed beyond challenge in courts, the election to Parliament of a person holding the office of PM or Speaker and election of the President and Prime Minister.
Forty second Amendment 1976 ·         Provided supremacy of Parliament and gave primacy to Directive principles over Fundamental Right. It also added 10 Fundamental Duties. New words- Socialist, Secular and Unity and Integrity of the Nation, were added in the preamble.
Forty fourth Amendment 1978 ·         The Right to Property was deleted from Part lll. Article 352 was amended to provide ‘Armed Rebellion’ as one of the circumstances for declaration of emergency.
Forty fifth Amendment 1985 ·         Extended reservation for SC/ST by another 10 years (till 1990).
Fifty second Amendment 1985 ·         Added the Tenth Schedule (regarding anti-defection).
Fifty third Amendment 1986 ·         Mizoram was made a state.
Fifty sixth Amendment 1987 ·         Hindi version of the Constitution of India was accepted for all purposes. The UT of Goa, Daman and Diu was divided and Goa was made a State. Daman and Diu remained as a UT.
Sixty first Amendment 1989 ·         Reduced the voting age from 21 to 18 years for the LS as well as Assemblies.
Sixty first Amendment 1989 ·         Also extended reservation of seats for SC/ST till 2000 AD.
Seventy first Amendment 1992 ·         Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were included in the VIII Schedule.
Seventy third Amendment 1993 ·         (Panchayati Raj Bill) Provided among other things Gram Sabha in Villages, Constitution of panchayats at the village and other levels, direct elections to all seats in panchayats and reservation of seats for the SC and ST, and fixing of tenure of 5 years for panchayats.
Seventy fourth Amendment 1993 ·         (Nagarpalika Bill) Provides for, among other things, Constitution of three types of municipalities, reservation of seats in every municipality for the SC and ST, women and the backward classes.
Eighty second Amendment 2000 ·         Reinstaled the provision of reservation of SC and STs in matters related to promotion. Besides, the qualifying marks  for passing an examination for them has also been lowered.
Eighty fourth Amendment 2001 ·         Extended Freeze on Lok Sabha and State Assembly seats till 2026.
Eighty sixth Amendment 2002 ·         Makes education a fundamental right for children in the age group of 6-14 years.
Eighty seventh Amendment 2003 ·         Made the 2001 census the basis for delimitation of constituencies of the Lower House of Parliament ( Lok Sabha) and State assembly (Vidhan Sabha).
Ninety first Amendment 2003 ·         Amended the Anti-Defection Law and also made a provision that the number of ministers in the in the Central & State Govts. Cannot be more than 15% of the strength of Lok Sabha & respected Vidhan Sabha.
Ninety second Amendment 2003 ·         Bodo, Maithili, Santhali and Dogri added into the VIII Schedule.
Ninety third Amendment 2005 ·         To reserve seats for socially & educationally backward classes, besides the SCs and STs, in private unaided institutions other than those run by minorities.
Ninety fourth Amendment 2006 ·         It excludes Bihar from the provision of clause (1) of Article 164 which provides that there shall be a minister in charge of welfare of the SCs AND Backward classes in Bihar, MP and Orissa. It also proposed to extend the provision of clause (1) of Article 164 to Chhatisgarh    and Jharkand.
Ninety fifth Amendment 2010 ·         To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and States Assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years ( continuation of reservation for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and the representation of the Angle-Indian community by nomination for a further period of ten years till 25 Jan, 2020).
Ninety sixth Amendment 2011 ·         Substituted ‘odia’ for ‘Oriya’ in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.
Ninety seventh Amendment 2012 ·         Added the words ‘or co-operative societies’ after the word ‘or unions in Article 19 (I) (c) and insertion of article 43B, i.e. Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e.,The Co-operative Societies. The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperative, which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.   

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