• Lying between latitude 8° 4´ N to 37°6´ N and from longitude 68°7´E to 97° 25´ E, the Country is divided into almost equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passing from Jabalpur in MP).
  • The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island) is the Indira Point (6°45´), while Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian Mainland. The country thus lies wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
  • The 82°30´ E longitude is taken as the standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India (from Naini, near Allahabad).


  • India stretches 3,214 km from N to S & 2,933 km from E to W.
  • Area: 32, 87, 263 sq. km Accounts for 2.4% of the total world area and 16% of the population.
  • Mainland India has a coastline of 6,100 km. Including the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar, the coastline measures about 7516.6 km.
  • In India, of the total land mass:

Plains: 43.3 %, Plateaus: 27.7%, Hills:18.6%,  Mountains: 10.7%.

  • In the South, on the eastern side, The Gulf 0f Mannar and the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka.
  • Total land neighbours: 7 (Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar).
  • India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal & Lakshadweep, Minicoy & Amindive Islands in the Arabian Sea.


  • Uttar Pradesh borders maximum number of States- 8 (Eight): Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar.
  • Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 (Eight) States: Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.
  • Indian Standard Meridian (82°30´ E meridian) passes through UP, MP, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.


                                               INDIA  IN  TABLES



Bordering Pakistan Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat.  
Bordering China Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttararakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh.      
Bordering Nepal Bihar, Uttarakhand, UP, Sikkim, West Bengal.  
Bordering Bangladesh West Bengal, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, Asom.   
Bordering Bhutan West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Asom.   
Bordering Myanmar Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram.  
Bordering Afghanistan Jammu & Kashmir (Pakistan-occupied area).  



Name Origin from Falls into Length (km.)
Ganges Combined sources Bay of Bengal 2525
Satluj Mansarovar Rakas Lakes  Chenab 1050
Indus Near Mansarovar lake Arabian Sea 2880
Ravi Kullu Hills near Rohtang Pass Chenab 720
Beas Near Rohtang pass Satluj 470
Jhelum Verinag in Kashmir Chenab 725
Yamuna Yamunotri Ganga 1375
Chambal M.P. Yamuna 1050
Ghagra Matsatung Glaciers Ganga 1080
Kosi Near Gosain Dham Peak Ganga 730
Betwa Vindhyanchal Yamuna 480
Son Amarkantak Ganga 780
Brahmaputra Near Mansarovar Lake Bay of Bengal 2900
Narmada Amarkantak Gulf of Khambat 1057
Tapti Betul Distt. in M.P. Gulf of Khambat 724
Mahanadi Raipur Distt. in Chhattisgarh Bay of Bengal 858
Luni Aravallis Rann of Kutch  450
Ghaggar Himalayas  Near Fatehabad 494
Sabarmati Aravallis  Gulf of Khambat 416
Krishna Western Ghats Bay of Bengal 1327
Godavari Nasik Distt. in Maharashtra Bay of Bengal 1465
Cauvery Brahmagir Range of Western Ghats  Bay of Bengal 805
Tungabhadra Western Ghats Krishna River 640




Western Coast Eastern Coast
Kandla (child of partition) Kolkata-Haldia (riverine port)
Mumbai (busiest and biggest) Paradip (exports raw iron to Japan)
Jawahar Lal Nehru (fastest growing) Vishakhapatnam (deepest port)
Marmugao (naval base also) Chennai (oldest and artificial)
Mangalore (exports Kudremukh iron-ore) Ennore (most modern-in private hands)
Cochin (natural harbour) Tuticorin (southernmost)
  Port Blair (strategically important)




Gir Forests Home of Asiatic lion. In Gujarat 
Kaziranga Sanctuary One horned Rhino. In Asom
Manas Sanctuary One horned Rhino. In Asom 
Chandraprabha Sanctuary II home of Asiatic lion. In UP
Ghana or Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary In Bharatpur, Rajasthan 
Dachigam Sanctuary For Hangul, in Kashmir
Corbett National Park In Uttarakhand. Home of Tiger
Kanha National Park In MP
Shiv Puri National Park In MP
Hazaribagh National Park In Jharkhand
Periyar Game Sanctuary In Kerala
Dudhwa National Park In UP
Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary In Tamil Nadu
Nokrek National Park In Meghalaya
Sariska Sanctuary In Rajasthan
Ranthambhor National Park In Rajasthan
Namdapha National Park In Arunachal Pradesh
Keibul Lamjo Floating National Park In Manipur
Palamau Tiger Project In Bihar
Similipal National Park In Odisha
Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary  In Mysore, Karnataka 
Nagarhole National Park In Karnataka
Mudumalai Sanctuary In Tamil Nadu
Balpakram Sanctuary In Meghalaya
Bandipur Sanctuary Along the Karnataka- Tamil Nadu border  
Jaldapara Sanctuary In West Bengal. For Rhinos
Wild Ass Sanctuary In Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. For wild Ass



Rice West Bengal, Punjab, UP
wheat Up, Punjab, Haryana
Maize Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 
Bajra Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra
Jowar Maharashtra, Karnataka, MP,AP
TOTAL FOODGRAINS UP, Punjab, West Bengal
Groundnut Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh 
Rapeseed and Mustard Rajasthan, UP, Haryana
Soyabean Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
Sunflower Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra
TOTAL OIL SEEDS MP, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
Sugarcane UP, Maharashtra, Karnataka
Cotton Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh 
Jute and Mesta West Bengal, Bihar, Asom
Tea Asom, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh 
Coffee Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu   
Rubber Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka 
Silk Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, in India all 4 varieties of silk are available: Mulberry, tussar, eri and muga. Mulberry is main variety, while tussar is mainly found in Bihar.
Tobacco Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka



Bhakra Nangal Project On Satluj in Punjab. Highest in India. Ht 226 m. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake.
Mandi Project On Beas in HP.
Chambal Valley Project On Chambal in MP &Rajasthan. 3 Dams are there: Gandhi Sagar dam, Rana Pratap Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam.
Damodar Valley Project  On Damodar in Bihar. Based on Tennessee Valley Project, USA.
Hirakud  Project On Mahanadi in Odisha. World’s Longest Dam: 4801 m. 
Rihand Project On Son in Mirzapur. Reservoir is called Govind Vallabh Pant reservoir.
Kosi Project On Kosi in N. Bihar.
Mayurkashi Project Om Mayurkashi in West Bengal.
Kakrapara Project On Tapti in Gujarat.
Nizamsagar Project On Manjra in Telangana.
Nagarjuna Sagar Project On Krishna in Telangana and AP.
Tungabhadra Project On Tungabhadra in AP& Karnataka
Shivasamudram Project On Cauvery in Karnataka. It is the oldest river valley project in India.
Tata Hydel Scheme On Bhima in Maharashtra.
Sharavathi Hydel Project On Jog falls in Karnataka
Kundah & Periyar Project In Tamil Nadu.
Farakka Project On Ganga in WB. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation.
Ukai Project On Tapti in Gujarat.
Mahi Project On Mahi in Gujarat.
Salal Project On Chenab in J&K.
Mata Tila Multipurpose Project On Betwa in UP & MP.
Thein Project On Ravi in Punjab.
Pong Dam On Beas in Punjab.
Tehri Project On Bhagirthi in Uttarakhand.
Sardar Sarovar Project On Narmada in Gujarat & MP.


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