Article 1 says “India that is Bharat, shall be a Union of State”
Though India opted for a federal form of government due to its large size and socio- cultural diversities, the word ‘Federation’ does not find a mention in the Constitution.
The term “ Union” was suggested by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar for two reasons-First, India Union is not a result of agreement of independent and sovereign states and second, the states do not have right to secede from the union.
According to Article 1, the territory of India can be classified into three categories:
- Territories of the states
- Union territories
- Territories that may be acquired by the Government of India at any time. The names of state and union territories with their territorial extent are mentioned in the first schedule of the Constitution. At present there are 28 states and 7 union territories.
Article 2 empowers Parliament with two powers, first to admit into the Union, new states and secondly, the power to establish new states.
REORGANISATION OF STATES:
The Constitution of India empowers the Union Government to create new states out of existing states or to merge one state with other. This process is called reorganization of the States.
Way back in 1947, the Constituent Assembly appointed the S.K. Dhar Commission to study the issue of the reorganization of the States on linguistic basis. However the recommendation of this Commission was not considered.
However in October 1953 the Government of India was forced to create the first linguistic State known as Andhra State, by separating the Telugu speaking areas from the Madras State.
In 1953, the Government set up a three-member States Reorganization Commission under the Chairmanship of Mr. Fazl Ali. The Commission submitted its report in 1955.
In 1956 the States Reorganization Act was passed.
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In October 1953, the Government of India was forced to create the first linguistic state, known as Andhra state, by separating the Telugu speaking areas from the Madras state.
New States and Union Territories created after 1956
Even after the large-scale reorganization of the states in 1956, the political map of India underwent continuous change due to the pressure of popular agitations and political conditions. The demand for the creation of some more states on the basis of language or cultural homogeneity resulted in the bifurcation of exiting states.
Maharashtra and Gujarat
In 1960, the bilingual state of Bombay was divided into two separate states-Maharashtra for Marathi-speaking people and Gujarat for Gujarati- speaking people.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
The Portuguese ruled this territory until its liberation in 1954. Subsequently, the administration was carried on till 1961 by an administrator chosen by the people themselves. It was converted into a Union Territory of India by the 10th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1961.
Goa, Daman and Diu
India acquired these three territories from the Portuguese by means of a police action in 1961. They were constituted as a Union Territory by the 12th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962. Later, in 1987, Goa was conferred a statehood. Consequently, Daman and Diu was made a separate Union Territory.
The territory of Puducherry comprises the former French establishment in India known as Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam. The French handed over this territory to India in 1954. Subsequently, it was administered as an ‘acquired territory’ till 1962 when it was made a Union Territory by the 14th Constitutional Amendment Act.
In 1963, the State of Nagaland was formed by taking the Naga Hills and Tuensang area out of the State of Assam. In 1961 Nagaland become the 16th State of the Indian Union.
Haryana, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh
In 1966, the State of Punjab was bifurcated to create Haryana, the 17th state of the Indian Union and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. In 1971, the Union Territory Himachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of a State (18th state of the Indian Union).
Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya
In 1972, the political map of Northeast India underwent a major change. Thus, the two Union Territories of Manipur and Tripura and the Sub-State of Meghalaya got statehood and the two union territories of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (originally known as North East Frontier Agency-NEFA) came into being. With this, the number of states of the Indian Union increased to 21 (Manipur 19th, Tripura 20th and Meghalaya 21st).
The 36th Constitutional Amendment Act (1975) was enacted to make Sikkim a full-fledged state of the Indian Union (the 22nd state).
Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Goa
In 1987, three new States of Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Goa came into being as the 23rd, 24th and 25th states of the Indian Union respectively. The Union Territory of Mizoram was conferred the status of a full state. The State of Goa was created by separating the territory of Goa from the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu.
Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand
In 2000, three more new States of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand were created out of the territories of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar respectively. These became the 26th, 27th and 28th states of the Indian Union respectively.
Formed in June 2014 from the Northern part of Andhra Pradesh, Telengana is the 29th state of India.
List of States & Union Territory
|Andhra Pradesh||Andaman and Nicobar Islands|
|Assam||Dadra and Nagar Haveli|
|Bihar||Daman and Diu|
|Chhattisgarh||Delhi (National Capital Territory)|
|Jammu and Kashmir|
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