|Qualifications||Must be a citizen of India.
Completed 35 yrs in age.
Eligible to be a member of Lok Sabha.
Must not hold any Government post.
– President& Vice- President.
– Governor of any State.
– Minister of Union OR State.
|Election||Indirectly elected through ‘Electoral College’ consisting of elected members of both Houses of Parliament & elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States (No nominated members).
Security deposit – 15,000/-
Supreme Court inquires all disputes regarding President’s election.
Takes OATH in presence of Chief Justice of India, or in his absence, senior most Judge of Supreme Court.
|Term & Emoluments||5 year term.
Article 57 says that there is no upper limits on the number of times a person can become President.
Can give resignation to the Vice-President before full-Term.
Present Salary- Rs. 1, 50, 000/month (including allowances & emoluments).
Can be impeached only on the ground of violation of Constitution.
The impeachment procedure can be initiated in either House of the Parliament.
|Vacancy||In case the office falls vacant due to death, resignation or removal, the Vice-President acts as President if he is not available then Chief Justice, if not then senior-most judge of the Supreme Court shall act as the President of India.
The election is to be held within 6 months of the vacancy.
|powers||Appoints PM, Ministers, Chief Justice & judges of Supreme Court & High Courts, Chairman & Members of the UPSC, Comptroller and Auditor General, Attorney General, Chief Election Commissioner and other members of Election Commission, Governors, Members of Finance Commission, Ambassadors, etc.
Can summon & prorogue the sessions of the 2 houses & can dissolve Lok Sabha.
Appoints Finance Commission (after every 5 years) that recommends distribution of taxes between Union & State Governments.
Appoints the Chief Justice and the Judges of The Supreme Court and High Courts.
The President can promulgate 3 types of Emergencies :
National Emergency – Article 352
State Emergency (President’s Rule) – Article 356
Financial Emergency – Article 360
He is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces of India.
President appoints Chiefs of Army, Navy & Air Force.
Declares Wars & concludes peace subject to the approval of the Parliament.
PRESIDENTS OF INDIA
|Name From To|
|Dr. Rajendra Prasad 26.01.1950 13.05.1962|
|Dr. S. Radhakrishnan 13.05.1962 13.05.1967|
|Dr. Zakir Hussain 13.05.1967 03.05.1969|
|V. V. Giri (Vice-President) 03.05.1969 20.07.1969|
|Justice M. Hidayatullah 20.07.1969 24.08.1969|
|V. V. Giri 24.08.1969 24.08.1974|
|F. Ali Ahmed 24.08.1974 11.02.1977|
|B. D.Jatti 11.02.1977 25.07.1977|
|N. Sanjiva Reddy 25.07.1977 25.07.1982|
|Gaini Jail Singh 25.07.1982 25.07.1987|
|R. Venkataraman 25.07.1987 25.07.1992|
|Dr.S.D.Sharma 25.07.1992 25.07.1997|
|K.R.Narayanan 25.07.1997 25.07.2002|
|Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam 25.07.2002 25.07.2007|
|Mrs.Pratibha Patil 25.07.2007 25.07.2012|
|Pranab Mukherji 25.07.2012 Till Date|
VICE – PRESIDENT
|Election||Elected by both (Electoral College) in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and the vote being secret. Nominated members also participate in his election.|
|The Supreme court has the final and exclusive jurisdiction for resolving disputes and doubts relating to the election of the Vice-President.|
|Criteria||Citizen of India.
More than 35 years of age.
Possess the qualification for membership of Rajya Sabha.
Not hold any office of profit under Union, State or local authority. However, for this purpose, the president, Vice-President, Governor of a State and a Minister of the Union or a State, are not held to be holding an office of profit.
|Other Points||Holds office for 5 years. Can be re-elected.
Term can be cut short if he resigns or by a resolution of the Rajya Sabha passed by a majority of all the members of the Rajya Sabha and agreed to by the Lok Sabha.
He is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. Since he is not a member of Rajya Sabha , he has no right to vote.
Being the Vice-President of India he is not entitled for any salary, but he is entitled to the salary and allowances payable to the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
All bills, resolution, motion can be taken in Rajya Sabha after his consent.
Can discharge the function of the President if the post falls vacant (For maximum 6 months).
When he discharges the function of the President, the Vice-President, shall not perform the duties of the office of the Chairman of Rajya Sabha and shall not be entitled to receive the salary of the Chairman. During this period, he is entitled for the salary and privileges of the President of India.
Present salary is Rs.1,25,000/- per month.
VICE – PRESIDENTS OF INDIA
|Dr.Zakir Hussain||1962||1967||Dr.Shankar Dayal Sharma||1987||1992|
|V. V. Giri||1967||1969||K. R. Narayanan||1992||1977|
|Bal Swaroop Pathak||1969||1974||Krishan Kant||1997||2002|
|Dr.M.Jattl||1974||1979||Bhairon Singh Shekhawat||2002||2007|
|Justic Mohd. Hidayatullah||1979||1984||Hamid Ansari||2007||Till date|
|Eligibility||Must be citizen of India
Must be a member of Lok Sabha. If he is not a member of either House, he must become a member of either of the House within six months.
Above 25 years of age (if a Lok Sabha member) or 30 years of age (if Rajya Sabha member).
Must not hold any office of profit under the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.
|Powers||Real executive authority.
He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Planning Commission, National Development Council, National Integration Council and Inter-state Council.
The President convenes and prorogues all session of Parliament in consultation with him.
Can recommend the dissolution of Lok Sabha before expiry.
Appoints the President in appointment of all high officials.
Can recommend to the President to declare emergency on grounds of war, external aggression or armed rebellion.
Advises President about President’s Rule in the state or emergency due to financial instability.
Leader of the House.
PRIME MINISTERS OF INDIA
|Jawahar Lal Nehru||15.08.1947||27.05.1964|
|Gulzari Lal Nanda||27.05.1964||09.06.1964|
|Lal Bahadur Shastri||09.06.1964||11.01.1966|
|Gulzari Lal Nanda||11.01.1966||24.01.1966|
|V. P. Singh||01.12.1989||10.11.1990|
|P. V. Narsimha Rao||21.06.1991||16.05.1996|
|Atal Bihari Vajpayee||16.05.1996||01.06.1996|
|H. D. Deve Gowda||01.06.1996||21.04.1997|
|L. K. Gujral||21.04.1997||19.03.1998|
|Atal Bihari Vajpayee||19.03.1998||13.10.1999|
|Atal Bihari Vajpayee||13.10.1999||22.05.2004|
|Dr. Manmohan Singh||22.05.2004||26.05.2014|
|Narendra Modi||26.05.2014||Till date|
PARLIAMENT OF INDIA
|LOK SABHA||Maximum strength – 550 + 2 nominated members.
(530 – States / 20 – Union Territories)
Present strength of Lok Sabha – 545.
The Eighty Fourth Amendment, 2001, extended freeze on Lok Sabha and State Assembly seats till 2026.
The normal tenure of the Lok Sabha is five years, but it may be dissolved earlier by the President. The life of the Lok Sabha can be extended by the Parliament beyond the five year term, when a proclamation of emergency under Article 352 is in force.
But the Parliament cannot extend the normal life of the Lok Sabha for more than one year at a time (no limit on the number of times in the Constitution).
The candidate must be:
(a) Citizen of India
(b) At least 25 years of age.
(c) Must not hold any office of profit.
(d) No unsound mind / insolvent.
(e) Has registered as voter in any Parliamentary constituency.
Oath of MPs is conducted by Speaker. Can resign, by writing to Speaker.
Presiding officer is Speaker (In his absence Deputy Speaker). The members among themselves elect him.
The Speaker continues in office even after the dissolution of the Lok Sabha till a newly elected Lok Sabha meets.
Usually the Speaker, after his election cuts-off all connection with his party & acts in an impartial manner. He does not vote in the first instance, but exercises his casting vote only to remove a deadlock.
Charges his salary from Consolidated Fund of India.
Speaker sends his resignation to deputy Speaker.
The majority of the total membership can remove Speaker after giving a 14 days notice (During this, time he doesn’t preside over the meetings). After his removal, continues in office till successor takes charge.