In life you always want more options. However, when you are faced with a lot of options it might become difficult to choose the correct one.

Your mind may be hardwired to think that there is only one answer which is correct. However this type of question exists to confuse you and possibly consume your time.

I, II, III type questions in Reading Comprehension ask you to choose between different combinations of options which together present the correct answer to the various questions presented to you.

Since there are a number of possibilities with regard to the correct answer you need to be extra careful and vigilant while reading each passage.

Read all the options carefully. Go back to the passage to check if the options are provided in the passage. Make sure you read the questions carefully since the answer will differ depending on the requirements of each question.

As always choose the most appropriate answer.

Reading Comprehension for CLAT

Reading Comprehension for CLAT


EXAMPLES

PARAGRAPH

1. Beyond using nostalgia as a blunt marketing technique, video games as a medium in particular appeal to players’ longing for the past.

Clay Routledge, a psychology professor at North Dakota State University who’s made a career out of studying nostalgia, has said gaming lends itself to the feeling more than other mediums because of its immersion factor—games have the potential to be more immediate and personal than other forms of entertainment.

Players aren’t remembering the time they watched a hero defeat a bad guy (as in a movie)—they’re remembering the time they beat the bad guy.

Jamie Madigan, who’s written extensively on the psychology of video games, points out that nostalgia tends to be at its strongest when people are reminiscing about socializing.

Gaming has always had a communal component to it, and it’s only more so now, with the rise of “Let’s Play” videos on YouTube. (The site’s most-subscribed channel for nearly two years has been PewDiePie, who’s known for his game walkthroughs and commentary.)

Last year, Amazon paid more than $1 billion to acquire Twitch, a company whose sole purpose is allowing people to watch other people play video games, as The Atlantic’s Robinson Meyer wrote.

QUESTIONS

A. Which of the following is true about video games?

I. They use nostalgia to appeal to gamers
II. They are part of a multi billion dollars industry
III. They have the potential to be relatively more personal
IV. Super Mario is a video game

a) I and II
b) II and IV
c) I and III
d) None of the above

The correct answer is c-I and III.

Explanation: II and IV present facts which are true in the real life context but go unmentioned in the passage. Since the question is framed in the context of the passage your answer should be limited to the information provided in it.

B. Which among these are the names of the individuals mentioned in the passage?

I. Pew Die Pie
II. Clay Routledge
III. Robinson Meyer
IV. Jamie Madigan

a) I and III
b) II, III and IV
c) I, II and III
d) All of the above

The correct answer is b-II, III and IV.

I is the name of a Youtube channel and not an individual here.


PARAGRAPH

Tennessee leads the nation in infants who experience painful drug withdrawals because the mother was taking drugs during her pregnancy.

It’s called Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome or NAS.

Dr. Jessica Young is a physician at Vanderbilt University Medical Center’s Women’s Clinic with 60 patients, all of whom are pregnant and addicted to drugs.

“At any given time, there are probably upwards of 4,000 women in the state of Tennessee who need treatment. Unfortunately, there just aren’t enough treatment programs for all these women. At our program we have a waiting list of up about eight weeks which is just way too long in pregnancy,” said Dr. Young.

As a weapon against NAS, through the Tennessee Department of Health, several counties are now offering women birth control implants or injections as they leave jail.

They are called voluntary long-term reversible contraceptives.

QUESTIONS

A. Which of these are true about Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome?

I. It is witnessed among infants
II. It is common among children of mothers who consumed narcotic substances during their pregnancy
III. Caffeine is a harmful drug which contributes to its incidence

a) II only
b) I and III
c) I and II
d) None of the above

The correct answer is c-I and II. III presents an unmentioned proposition which the author is not seen to promote.

B. What is the purpose of providing birth control measures to those jail inmates who are leaving?

I. To save children around the world
II. To combat Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
III. To promote population control

a) I and III
b) II only
c) III only
d) None of the above

The correct answer is b-II only. I is too broad and vague while III is outside the context of the passage.


PARAGRAPH

It’s no secret that Photoshop is a frequently used tool in the world of fashion photography.

While I believe the intentions of photo editors are usually nothing more than to sell a product, the edits made often have negative effects on viewers.

The truth is that what these editors retouch has serious ramifications on our society.

Photoshop editors and magazine photographers need to realize they have real influence on what America thinks about itself and should accept that social responsibility.

Almost a month ago, Zendaya modeled in a cover shoot for the November issue of Modeliste.

The cover photo created controversy when it was released as Zendaya was shocked to see how much the editors had altered her body.

Her hair was recurved, her skin recoloured, and her hips and torso were completely flattened out, leaving no room for realism.

To protest the phony cover photos, she posted her copies of the unedited natural pictures to her Instagram, giving the world a side by side comparison of who she really is, as opposed to who the media wanted her to be.

Zendaya is currently one of the most influential advocates for body positivity and self-confidence in Hollywood. She understands that what people see in these magazines could affect what they think about themselves and create a personal standard that is impossible to meet.

QUESTIONS

A. Which of the following are true about Zendaya?

I. Zendaya is a model
II. Zendaya has featured in Modeliste
III. Zendaya is an advocate of gyms and fitness training

a) I and III
b) I and II
c) I only
d) None of the above

The correct answer is b-I and II. III is incorrect because only Zendaya’s views on body positivity are expressed in this passage; no reference is made to her position on fitness.

B. Which of the following would the author be most likely to agree with?

I. Photoshopping pictures on magazine covers can lead to negative body image among women
II. Photoshop is the innovation of the century
III. People are unable to change their food patterns despite their wish to look like models

a) I only
b) II and III
c) III only
d) None of the above

The correct answer is a-I only. II is incorrect because the author is quite pessimistic about the usage of Photoshop. III is also the wrong answer since the author does not make any references to the dietary habits of people.


PARAGRAPH

Born and raised in the ancient town of Sijing, Peng found he had too much free time after retirement and decided to recycle old materials lying around his home into something artistic.

He had no formal artistic training. Instead, he learned by doing. He drew his first inspiration from architectural legacies in his hometown.

His maiden work was a miniature of the town’s landmark Anfang Pagoda, which was reconstructed early in this century to replace the thousand-year-old Dongtian Temple Pagoda destroyed during the World War II.

He constructed the pillars from chopsticks, the roof from a biscuit tin and the ripples of a nearby lake from electric wires.

It took Peng almost a year to create the seven story, 35-meter pagoda on a scale of 1-to-200. The delicate work involved “cutting, piercing, coloring and gluing pieces of wood,” Peng said.

He said he has only two or three hours a day to devote to his artistic endeavors because he has to take care of his wife and also help in his son’s shop. But those few creative hours give free rein to his imagination and his skills.

QUESTIONS

A. Which of the following items were used by Peng for constructing his miniature of Anfang Pagoda?

I. Biscuit tin
II. Chopsticks
III. Stones

a) I and II
b) II only
c) I and III
d) None of the above

The correct answer is a-I and II. III is incorrect because it has not been mentioned as a possible material in the passage.

B. Which of the following are true about Peng?

I. Peng was born in the ancient era
II. Peng was not trained in art
III. Peng began to make miniatures after his retirement

a) I and II
b) I and III
c) II and III
d) All of the above

The correct answer is c-II and III. I is incorrect because the passage only mentions that Sijing is an ancient town. There is no reference to when he was born.


PARAGRAPH

Never before have so many worthy options for decorating and entertaining presented themselves to conscientious householders. Long ago, our grandmothers unhurriedly flipped through Ladies’ Home Journal and McCall’s to update their eggnogs and hunt patterns for tree skirts.

Ebenezer Scrooge contended with the Ghost of Christmas Present, who forced him to witness only a handful of other people’s fetes.

But modern-day hosts are subjected to thousands of images of strangers’ holiday rituals, through television and magazines but especially on social media, where every fireside post competes to be merrier than the last.

All of which serves as a constant reproof that perhaps, we’re not nearly as festive as we mean to be.

QUESTIONS

A. Which of the following will the author most likely agree with?

I. Festivity has lost its importance in the competition for likes on social media
II. People are unaware about their traditional culture
III. Holidays are a time to relax

a) I and III
b) I and II
c) I only
d) All of the above

The correct answer is c-I only. II and III are outside the context of the passage and are not reflective of the author’s ideas.

B. Which of the following publications are mentioned in the passage?

I. Ebenezer Scrooge
II. McCall
III. Ladies’ Home Journal

a) I and II
b) II and III
c) I and III
d) All of the above

The correct answer is b-II and III. I is the name of an individual mentioned in the passage.


SELF-PRACTICE EXERCISES

Now try these questions yourself.

PARAGRAPH

1. More than half the world’s primates, including apes, lemurs and monkeys, are facing extinction, international experts warned on Tuesday.

The population crunch is the result of large-scale habitat destruction – particularly the burning and clearing of tropical forests – as well as the hunting of primates for food and the illegal wildlife trade.

Species long known to be at risk, including the Sumatran orangutan, have been joined on the most endangered list for the first time by the Philippine tarsier and the Lavasoa dwarf lemur from Madagascar, scientists meeting in Singapore said.

A. Which of the following are new entrants to the most endangered species list?

I. Sumatran orangutan
II. Lavasoa dwarf lemur
III. Phillipine tarsier

a) I and II
b) I and III
c) II and III
d) All of the above

B. Which of the following has contributed to endangering of animal species?

I. Illegal wildlife trade
II. Burning of tropical forests
III. Defect in the gene pool

a) I and II
b) II and III
c) All of the above
d) None of the above

PARAGRAPH

2. Gun World & Archery opened Friday at its new location on Noddle Lane, across the street from its old building. The new Gun World is twice the size and includes a three-lane indoor archery range and more products.

“We’d like to thank all of our loyal customers for helping to make this happen,” owner Farnes Williams told the Free Press on Wednesday.

Jeff Williams, whose company NNE Construction owns the property, said Maverik on Mountain City Highway also played a large part in making the move possible. The company offered to purchase Gun World’s previous location so it can demolish the building to make way for a larger service station.

A. Which of the following are features of the new Gun World & Archery?

I. Larger sized space
II. Three lane indoor archery range
III. Demolition equipment

a) I only
b) II only
c) II and III
d) I and II

B. Which of these individuals have been mentioned in the passage?

I. Maverik
II. Jeff Williams
III. Farnes Williams

a) I and III
b) II and III
c) I and II
d) All of the above

PARAGRAPH

3. Eating a quality breakfast actually boosts school performance for kids in Wales, a new study shows.

Public health experts at Cardiff University discovered the odds of achieving an above average educational performance were up to twice as high for children who ate breakfast, compared with those who didn’t eat breakfast. They also found eating unhealthy things for breakfast, like chips or sweets, didn’t boost performance.

“This study therefore offers the strongest evidence yet of links between aspects of what pupils eat and how well they do at school, which has significant implications for education and public health policy…” said Hannah Littlecott from Cardiff University’s Centre for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement, lead author of the study.

Researchers studied 4,500 children ages 9 through 11 and asked them to list what and when they ate the previous day and the morning of each survey. They then linked that information to test scores.

A. Which of the following was not part of the study?

I. Providing students with smartphones
II. Asking students to list the food they consumed
III. Linking data about food to test scores

a) I only
b) II and III
c) III only
d) None of the above

B. Which of the following was part of the findings of the study?

I. Breakfast should include both sweet and savoury items
II. Children who consume breakfast on average tend to perform better in tests than those who do not
III. Consuming unhealthy food for breakfast does not enhance test scores

a) I and III
b) II and III
c) III only
d) All of the above

PARAGRAPH

4. Florida State University researchers, along with an international team of scientists, have put together the most complete look to date of the evolutionary family tree of cardiid bivalves, commonly known as cockles and clams.

“As scientists, we’re trying to understand the history of life on earth,” said Scott Steppan, professor of biological science at Florida State. “That is one of our greatest endeavors. I can’t think of anything more innately human than understanding the history of life and where everything came from.”

In the journal Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Steppan and former FSU graduate student Nathanael Herrera lay out the phylogeny—or family tree—of cardiid bivalves, with a specific look at how the shifting of continents millions of years ago affected the evolution of the species.

Bivavles include clams, oysters, cockles, mussels, scallops and numerous other organisms living in both salt water and fresh water all over the world.

A. Which of the following does Scott Steppan describe as the purpose of the Florida State University researchers?

I. Understanding the history of life on earth
II. Understanding the emergence of earthly species and elements
III. Scientific prowess and publishing articles

a) I only
b) I and II
c) I and III
d) None of the above

B. Which of the following was the specific focus of the Steppan and Herrara publication?

I. Affects of shifting of continents on the evolution of cardiid bivalves
II. Family tree of cardiid bivalves
III. Biology of clams and oysters

a) III only
b) I and II
c) I only
d) All of the above

PARAGRAPH

5. Champion of regeneration, the freshwater polyp Hydra is capable of reforming a complete individual from any fragment of its body. It is even able to remain alive when all its neurons have disappeared.

Researcher the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, have discovered how: cells of the epithelial type modify their genetic program by overexpressing a series of genes, among which some are involved in diverse nervous functions.

Studying Hydra cellular plasticity may thus influence research in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. The results are published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

The freshwater Hydra is endowed with an extraordinary power of regeneration, discovered by the Swiss naturalist Abraham Trembley more than 250 years ago.

The group of Brigitte Galliot, professor at the Department of Genetics and Evolution of the Faculty of Science of UNIGE, has studied the stem cells functioning and cellular plasticity of the polyp: “its nervous system regulates in particular contraction bursts, feeding behavior, moving or swimming.

If the stem cells responsible for its renewal are depleted, the Hydra can still develop, even when all its neurons have disappeared. We wanted to understand how this is possible.”

A. Which of the following are characteristics of Hydra?

I. It uses asexual method of reproduction
II. It is able to remain alive even after death of its neurons
III. Hydra consumes hydrogen from freshwater lakes

a) I and III
b) III only
c) II only
d) None of the above

B. Which of the following are controlled by the nervous system in Hydra?

I. Mating
II. Movement
III. Feeding

a) I only
b) II and III
c) III only
d) None of the above

PARAGRAPH

6. Nothing lasts forever – especially Phobos, one of the two small moons orbiting Mars. The moonlet is spiraling closer and closer to the Red Planet on its way toward an inevitable collision with its host. But a new study suggests that pieces of Phobos will get a second life as a ring around the rocky planet.

In our solar system, the only planets with rings are the gas giants – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The study, published Monday in the journal Nature Geoscience, suggests this wasn’t always the case. However, the study authors say this is probably the last time a rocky planet will have a chance to sport a ring.

A moon – or moonlet – in orbit around a planet has three possible destinies. If it is just the right distance from its host, it will stay in orbit indefinitely.

If it’s beyond that point of equilibrium, it will slowly drift away. (This is the situation with the moon; as it gradually pulls away from Earth, its orbit is growing by about 1.5 inches per year.) And if a moon starts out on the too-close side, its orbit will keep shrinking until there is no distance left between it and its host planet.

That will be the ultimate fate of Phobos, as astronomers have known for decades.

A. Which of the following are the possible destinies of a moon in orbit?

I. The moon will die after self combustion
II. It will collide with the host planet
III. It will turn into a black hole

a) I and III
b) I only
c) II only
d) All of the above

B. What do researchers predict to be the future of Phobos?

I. It will form a future ring around Mars
II. It will collide with Mars
III. It will drift away into another orbit

a) I and II
b) I and III
c) II and III
d) None of the above

PARAGRAPH

7. A team of researchers affiliated with the National Museum of Nature and Science in Japan, The University of Wollongong in Australia and The National Research and Development Centre for Archaeology, in Indonesia, has performed the first comprehensive analysis of the teeth from the skeletal remains of several of the creatures found on the Indonesian Island of Flores starting back in 2003—they are reporting that their examination has revealed that the creatures were indeed members of a separate species from modern humans, not modern humans with microcephaly.

In their paper uploaded to the open access site PLoS ONE, the team describes their analysis and what they found that led them to their conclusions.

The child-sized skeletal human-looking fossils found on Flores began to be referred to as the remains of a Hobbit when it was discovered that they belonged to fully grown human-like creatures.

Standing at just 0.9 meters when alive, the hobbits would have been considerably smaller than modern humans, or even other human cousins that have since gone extinct.

Researchers have found the remains of nine of the skeletons, the bones of which have been found to be approximately 18,000 years old—together the discovery has caused much debate about whether the creatures were a species separate from modern humans, or if they were modern human that had simply suffered from microcephaly—a condition that leads a person to have a small body and head, and also some degree of retardation.

To help settle the debate the researchers with this new effort undertook a serious examination and analysis of the creatures’ teeth.

A. Which of the following countries has participated in the analysis of teeth of skeletal remains found in Flores?

I. Japan
II. Korea
III. Indonesia

a) I and II
b) II only
c) I and III
d) All of the above

B. Why did the researchers undertake the analysis?

I. For the advancement of biology
II. To settle debates regarding the species to which the skeletal remains belonged
III. To dismantle the myths regarding death prevalent in the island of Flores

a) I and II
b) II only
c) III only
d) None of the above

PARAGRAPH

8. Over the last decade, many people got a tough primer on the effects of economic bubbles, as the bursting of the 2007-2008 housing bubble sent shockwaves through most of the major world economies.

But property isn’t the only asset class that experiences economic bubbles; any asset valued at a price or a range that deviates sharply from its intrinsic value is said to be experiencing a bubble.

Other examples include the so-called dot-com bubble of 1995-2000, the stock market bubble of 1922-1929, and there was even a bubble in the uranium market in 2007. Often, speculative bubbles occur in the markets for durable goods, defined as an asset that does not quickly wear out.

By contrast, studies have demonstrated that price-quantity equilibrium prevails in markets for goods that are immediately consumed, like milk shakes and haircuts; this is because the buyer and the seller never trade places, and the consumption value of the good is very high.

A group of economics researchers at Chapman University in California, curious about production and trade in a stock-flow market for durable assets, treated the issue as a pure abstraction in a study recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

They developed a model of a reproducible durable asset with several conceptual elements: First, the asset provides use value to its owner (dividends) through use. The asset depreciates over time. And suppliers can profitably sell newly manufactured units if the price is below the market price.

A. Which of the following sectors has experienced a bubble?

I. Housing sector
II. Stock market
III. Education sector

a) I and III
b) I and II
c) II and III
d) All of the above

B. Which of the following features were present in the durable assets part of the model in the study?

I. It is reproducible
II. It provides value to its owner through use
III. It depreciates over time

a) I and III
b) II and III
c) All of the above
d) None of the above

PARAGRAPH

9. Imagine that your doctor knows from evidence-based studies that if he tells you about certain, small side-effects to a particular drug, you are significantly more likely to experience that side effect than if he did not tell you about it. Given the three values of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, what should he do?

On the flip side, what if your doctor knew that statistically patients who are gradually weaned off of a chronic pain medication by decreasing their dosage until it is a placebo will still experience relief from their pain as a result of habituation? Should the doctor lie to you about your dosage in an effort to help your chronic pain while mitigating side effects?

Mark Alfano, bioethicist at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands writes a compelling argument for re-defining our views of placebos and placebo effects and how, by defining them in terms of classical conditioning, expectation fulfilment, and somatic attention and feedback, the ethics of informed consent changes by doing so. His is the target article in this month’s issue of the American Journal of Bioethics.

Traditionally “placebo effect” is an umbrella term for something that produces nonspecific effects. Alfano specifies three definitions often used in the literature: Shapiro and Morris’s definition, the American Medical Association’s definition, and Adolf Grunbaum’s definition.

While each has its distinctions, they all define placebo effects in negative terms. However, placebo effects are real phenomena caused by neurobiological and psychological factors, many of which are specific. Research provides many examples of how certain interventions or suggestions, considered placebos, produce specific results.

A. Which of the following would the author be most likely agree to?

I. Placebos can cause side effects to patients who unknowingly consume them
II. Medicine is a complicated and diverse area of study
III. Human beings are dependent by nature and unwilling to do anything unless they have incentives in view

a) I only
b) I and II
c) III only
d) None of the above

B. Which of the following information about Mark Alfano is true?

I. He is a bioethicist by profession
II. His place of work is Netherlands
III. He has written for the American Journal of Bioethics

a) I and II
b) II only
c) All of the above
d) None of the above

PARAGRAPH

10. Last week, I wrote about life’s little situations that try my patience and make me wish I were more tolerant of rude, thoughtless people – on the highway, in the grocery store, at the doctor’s office.

I asked you to throw in your own 2 cents’ worth, so here are edited excerpts from some of your replies:
Bob also had unkind words for the drivers who pull to the head of the lane at a bottleneck: “The smart move is to move as soon as possible to the open lane which, of course, becomes slow with traffic. But here comes the idiot flying up the lane soon to be closed to traffic so they can get to the front and nose over into the open lane. I never let them in even when they threaten to take my fender off! Unbelievable!

Gwen wrote in: “Over the years, I’ve developed ‘distraction therapy’ and always have a Reader’s Digest or another light magazine available in my car.

I save The Chronicle on the days I have any kind of medical/dental appointment for the waiting room. And I do believe the grocery stores put magazines near the checkout to keep us entertained when we have to stand in their lines!”

George said by e-mail: “You and I must lead parallel lives. How about tailgaters? … I made a bumper sticker about that, and even that doesn’t help. And how about … oh, never mind; there are too many to list.”

A. Which type of rude and thoughtless person has not been mentioned?

I. Tailgaters
II. Idle teenagers painting vulgar graffiti on walls
III. Those who do not offer the seat to the elderly

a) I only
b) II and III
c) All of the above
d) None of the above

B. Which of these publications help Gwen in her ‘distraction therapy’?

I. The Chronicle
II. Reader’s Digest
III. Vogue

a) I and II
b) I and III
c) I only
d) II only


ANSWER KEY

1. A. c-II and III

1. B. a- I and II

2. A. d-I and II

2. B. b-II and III

3. A. a-I only

3.B. b-II and III

4. A. b-I and II

4. B. c-I only

5. A. c-II only

5. B. b-II and III

6. A. c-II only

6. B. a-I and II

7. A. c-I and III

7. B. b-II only

8. A. b-I and II

8. B. c-All of the above

9. A. d-None of the above

9. B. c-All of the above

10. A. b-II and III

10. B. a-I and II

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