• The components of food are: Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Minerals, Vitamins, Water and Roughage.
  • If all the components are present in optimum proportions and quantity for maintaining the body in perfect state of health, activity and development than the food is called balanced diet.

CARBOHYDRATES

  • Constitutes 3 elements: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
  • Daily requirement is 500 gms. 1 gm gives 17 KJ of energy.
  • The carbohydrates of the food eaten, after being processed in the alimentary canal and liver, are supplied to the tissues mainly as glucose, often called blood sugar.
  • Sources: 3 main cereals (wheat, rice and maize), sugar cane, milk, fruits, honey, beet, etc.
  • They are 3 types: Cellulose, Starch and sugar.
  • Structrually, carbohydrates are of 3 types: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.
  • Excess carbohydrate is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen.

FATS

  • Provides twice the energy of carbohydrates (1 gm provides 37 KJ of energy).
  • Acts as the reserve food material because excess fat is stored in the liver and as adipose tissue.
  • An enzyme called Lipase digests fats. It breaks down into fatty acids and glycerol.
  • Daily requirement: 50 gms.

PROTEINS

  • Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.
  • Important for growth and repair of the body.
  • Made up of amino acids.
  • Kwashiorkar and Marasmus are the diseases which occur due to deficiency of protein.

MINERALS

Mineral

MACRO ELEMENTS

Sources Signiflcance Effects of deficiency
Calcium (Ca)# Milk, cereals, cheese, green vegetables Required for formation of teeth and bones, blood clotting, functions of nerves and muscles Weak teeth and bones: retarded body growth
Phosphorus (P) Milk, meat, cereals Required for formation of teeth and bones and acid-base balance: component of ATP, DNA,RNA Weak teeth and bones: retarded body growth and physiology
Sulphur (S) Many proteins of food Component of many amino acids Disturbed protein metabolism.
Potassium (K) Meat, milk, cereals, fruits and vegetables Required for acid-base balance, water regulation and function of nerves Low blood pressure, weak muscles: risk of paralysis
Chlorine (C) Table salt Required for acid-base balance: component of gastric juice Loss of appetite, muscle cramps
Sodium (Na) Table salt Required for acid-base and water balance and nervous functions Low blood pressure, Loss of appetite: muscle cramps
Magnesium (Mg) Cereals, green vegetables Co-factor of many enzymes of glycolysis and a number of other metabolic reactions dependent upon ATP Irregularities of metabolism principally affecting nervous functions
Iron (Fe) Meat, eggs, cereals, green, vegetables Component of haemoglobin and cytochromes Anaemia, weakness and weak immunity
Iodine (I) Milk, cheese, sea food, iodized salt Important component thyroxine hormone Goitre, Cretinism
  • The salt of Ca required by our body is Ca3 (PO4)2

VITAMINS

Balanced Diet - GK for CLAT

Balanced Diet – GK for CLAT

  • Necessary for normal growth, good health, good vision, proper digestion, etc. They do not provide energy to our body.
  • Vitamins can be divided into two categories.
  • Water-soluble: Vitamin B-complex, Vitamin C.
  • Fat-soluble: Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K.

TYPES OF VITAMINS

Vitamin Chemical Name Properties Deficiency Disease
A Retinol General health giving vitamin, can be stored in liver Night blindness
B1 Thiamine For growth, carbohydrate metabolism, functioning of heart Beri-Beri
B2 Riboflavin For keeping skin and mouth healthy Cheilosis
B5 Niacin For healthy skin, sound mental health Pellagra
B6 Pyridoxine Processing of proteins and for nervous system Convulsions in child
B12 Cynacobalamin Required for formation and maturation of RBCs Pernicious anaemia
C Ascorbic Acid For keeping teeth, gums and joints healthy. Gets destroyed on heating Scurvy
D Calciferol For normal bones and teeth, can be stored in liver Rickets
E Tocopherol For normal reproduction, removes scars and wrinkles Sterility
K Phylloquinone For normal clotting of blood Haemophilia

 

WATER

  • Important in digestion, transportation, excretion and to regulate body temperature (body contains 65% water).

ROUGHAGE

  • Fibrous material present in the cell wall of plants.
  • Mainly contains cellulose.
  • It doesn’t provide energy but only helps in retaining water in the body.
  • One of the common source is Daliya, Which we eat in our homes.

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