- The components of food are: Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Minerals, Vitamins, Water and Roughage.
- If all the components are present in optimum proportions and quantity for maintaining the body in perfect state of health, activity and development than the food is called balanced diet.
- Constitutes 3 elements: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
- Daily requirement is 500 gms. 1 gm gives 17 KJ of energy.
- The carbohydrates of the food eaten, after being processed in the alimentary canal and liver, are supplied to the tissues mainly as glucose, often called blood sugar.
- Sources: 3 main cereals (wheat, rice and maize), sugar cane, milk, fruits, honey, beet, etc.
- They are 3 types: Cellulose, Starch and sugar.
- Structrually, carbohydrates are of 3 types: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides.
- Excess carbohydrate is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen.
- Provides twice the energy of carbohydrates (1 gm provides 37 KJ of energy).
- Acts as the reserve food material because excess fat is stored in the liver and as adipose tissue.
- An enzyme called Lipase digests fats. It breaks down into fatty acids and glycerol.
- Daily requirement: 50 gms.
- Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.
- Important for growth and repair of the body.
- Made up of amino acids.
- Kwashiorkar and Marasmus are the diseases which occur due to deficiency of protein.
|Sources||Signiflcance||Effects of deficiency|
|Calcium (Ca)#||Milk, cereals, cheese, green vegetables||Required for formation of teeth and bones, blood clotting, functions of nerves and muscles||Weak teeth and bones: retarded body growth|
|Phosphorus (P)||Milk, meat, cereals||Required for formation of teeth and bones and acid-base balance: component of ATP, DNA,RNA||Weak teeth and bones: retarded body growth and physiology|
|Sulphur (S)||Many proteins of food||Component of many amino acids||Disturbed protein metabolism.|
|Potassium (K)||Meat, milk, cereals, fruits and vegetables||Required for acid-base balance, water regulation and function of nerves||Low blood pressure, weak muscles: risk of paralysis|
|Chlorine (C)||Table salt||Required for acid-base balance: component of gastric juice||Loss of appetite, muscle cramps|
|Sodium (Na)||Table salt||Required for acid-base and water balance and nervous functions||Low blood pressure, Loss of appetite: muscle cramps|
|Magnesium (Mg)||Cereals, green vegetables||Co-factor of many enzymes of glycolysis and a number of other metabolic reactions dependent upon ATP||Irregularities of metabolism principally affecting nervous functions|
|Iron (Fe)||Meat, eggs, cereals, green, vegetables||Component of haemoglobin and cytochromes||Anaemia, weakness and weak immunity|
|Iodine (I)||Milk, cheese, sea food, iodized salt||Important component thyroxine hormone||Goitre, Cretinism|
- The salt of Ca required by our body is Ca3 (PO4)2
- Necessary for normal growth, good health, good vision, proper digestion, etc. They do not provide energy to our body.
- Vitamins can be divided into two categories.
- Water-soluble: Vitamin B-complex, Vitamin C.
- Fat-soluble: Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K.
TYPES OF VITAMINS
|Vitamin||Chemical Name||Properties||Deficiency Disease|
|A||Retinol||General health giving vitamin, can be stored in liver||Night blindness|
|B1||Thiamine||For growth, carbohydrate metabolism, functioning of heart||Beri-Beri|
|B2||Riboflavin||For keeping skin and mouth healthy||Cheilosis|
|B5||Niacin||For healthy skin, sound mental health||Pellagra|
|B6||Pyridoxine||Processing of proteins and for nervous system||Convulsions in child|
|B12||Cynacobalamin||Required for formation and maturation of RBCs||Pernicious anaemia|
|C||Ascorbic Acid||For keeping teeth, gums and joints healthy. Gets destroyed on heating||Scurvy|
|D||Calciferol||For normal bones and teeth, can be stored in liver||Rickets|
|E||Tocopherol||For normal reproduction, removes scars and wrinkles||Sterility|
|K||Phylloquinone||For normal clotting of blood||Haemophilia|
- Important in digestion, transportation, excretion and to regulate body temperature (body contains 65% water).
- Fibrous material present in the cell wall of plants.
- Mainly contains cellulose.
- It doesn’t provide energy but only helps in retaining water in the body.
- One of the common source is Daliya, Which we eat in our homes.