By Amrita Ghosh
Q. In each of the following paragraphs, identify the main idea.
1. Uber began testing its cars in Arizona after its self-driving program was shut down in California late last year because the company had failed to obtain the proper permits. California cracked down after Uber autonomous cars were seen breezing through red lights. The company agreed to comply with the state’s rules and once again began testing its cars in San Francisco earlier this month.
a. Overcoming the hurdles in Uber’s testing of self-driving program
b. California is strict about traffic violations
c. Autonomous cars are risky
d. Uber is working on self driving programs
2. For visitors, ‘Trips’ is a way to experience a different side of the city and immerse themselves in communities through the eyes of locals, Airbnb said. “Trips is the most significant development in the history of Airbnb,” Airbnb CEO and Head of Community Brian Chesky said. We’re expanding beyond accommodation, but taking the same people-focused approach to the entire trip.” Airbnb Trips will offer locals and visitors the chance to immerse themselves in the people, places and experiences that make the city unique, he added. “I’m excited to launch India Trips today as we’ve handpicked unique experiences, designed and led by locals, to reflect the diversity and variety of the city,” Chesky said.
a. Airbnb is diversifying its products.
b. The CEO commends his team’s efforts
c. Characteristics of Airbnb’s latest offering.
d. Handpicking travel experiences make them better
3. Luis Suárez, Fernando Torres and Xabi Alonso are among the handful of players Liverpool can boast of as stars who have caught the imagination of fans. They too have gone for greener pastures after a few seasons. Clearly, the club is not able to hold on to its star players. This is a worrying aspect. Over the years, the club has lost its stickiness where bigger clubs like Barcelona and Real Madrid, etc. have snatched away its stars. The lack of top four finish has really hurt the club in terms of attracting the best talent. In some cases, the club’s location has also affected the players’ interest in it. Alexis Sanchez, for example, joined Arsenal.
a. Liverpool’s loss of star players
b. Liverpool has had many star players in the past.
c. Arsenal is usurping Liverpool’s turf.
d. Talent is inherent in footballers.
4. The entire thought process in our patriarchal society in India revolves around the idea that it is women’s bounden duty to look after all the needs of everyone around them—husband, children, family, extended family and anyone else who may need pleasing. The reward for performing this duty is… more sacrifices! If she dares ask for any form of reward, she is immediately cast as selfish and as not befitting the universal ideal of “woman”. So if your reward is doing the job itself the question of asking for money in a marriage does not arise and heaven help you if you dare ask for maintenance in a divorce.
a. How patriarchy determines the gender roles for women
b. A woman is meant to make sacrifices
c. Women should be rewarded for their work.
d. Society decides who is an ‘ideal’ woman.
5. Most people are aware that diabetes has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, with India being no exception. Statistics show that India is home to over 68 million patients with diabetes, and it is no surprise that various health conferences and esteemed policymakers have been discussing ways to increase early intervention in the management and control of the disease. However, the relevance of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and the significance of its prevention and management in the fight against diabetes is often undermined. GDM is detected during the gestational period, i.e., when a woman is expecting a child. It occurs in women of reproductive age, particularly in those who have high blood glucose levels during pregnancy. However, GDM remains confined to the corridors of obstetric wards and labour delivery-rooms, limiting the visibility of the condition with policymakers and healthcare administrators.
a. Diabetes is a widespread disease.
b. Women suffer from more forms of diabetes.
c. Awareness should be raised about GDM
d. How GDM is relatively unknown despite awareness about diabetes in general
6. Agriculture as a sector is the largest employer in India, contributing 17% to the GDP. Yet it is considered one of the riskiest sectors to be employed in because of its dependency on uncontrollable factors such as weather, topographical conditions and constantly changing government policies. Therefore, it becomes imperative to embed technology in the complex and diverse agriculture sector, with a keen focus on simplifying agriculture and farmers’ logistics—from production to distribution. While technology innovations have existed in this sector for a long time, they always lacked the penetration factor and hardly reached small farmers. Now, with technology-driven startups coming into the picture, existing challenges are gradually, fading away, providing farmers with direct market access and information, besides weather and soil-management services.
a. Tech startups are targeting agriculturists.
b. Technology can help mediate risks in the agricultural sector
c. Farmers work in a risk prone sector.
d. Accessibility is available through technology.
7. When election fever strikes, voters, myself included, rush enthusiastically to voting booths to usher a change. We also exhort other voters to cast their vote and be a part of forming the government. A bit like our attitude to marriage don’t you think? When we get married we try to convince others to join the ride, extolling the virtues and benefits of being hitched. Suddenly, being married feels so much better than being single. In fact, we even try to pressurise singles into marriage and are constantly trying to set them up on blind dates with potential life partners.
a. Marriage is like creating pressure.
b. Electoral enthusiasm is analogous to excitement regarding marriage
c. Election can lead to changes in the system.
d. Marriage has many benefits like voting.
8. Politicians are major stakeholders in several educational institutions, and their ecosystem thrives on cash. Donations are the preferred mode of cash recovery, keeping their political machinery well oiled. And demonetisation is pinching them significantly. The person who is going to suffer the most, though, is the middleman, who is feeling the pinch as the “paid” seats—and commissions—dry up. Earlier, he could charge a solid commission as a liaison between the institution and the candidate. As cash changed hands, he could retain a fat margin in between. No longer, as the candidates prefer to pay directly now, and lower amounts would reduce the commission in between.
a. Impact of demonetisation on those with vested economic interests in the education system
b. Demonetisation has hit the educational institutions.
c. Education and capitation fees.
d. Changing of money in education sector.
9. The country’s obsession with fair skin is no secret. We have fairness creams, fairness face-wash, fairness soaps, stuff to make your underarms fair, and I am wondering why no one hasn’t still come up with something that will make your elbows sparkling white or your heels as white as the paneer in the fridge. In our conversations, dark complexion is often subconsciously made out to be a flaw or a shortcoming. Ask anyone with dark skin, he or she must have been told at least once in life how good-looking he/she is ‘despite being dark’. And while speaking or writing about Bollywood, we quickly slot anyone any shade darker than milk, as ‘unconventional’ looking. How kind of them to even call darker-skinned people ‘talented’, ‘beauties’ or some such.
a. Bollywood has ingrained racism.
b. Race is a subset of skin colour.
c. The overwhelming emphasis that is provided to skin colour in the country.
d. Fair skin is better than dark skin.
10. UP’s women have been central to this process, helping to expand public access to healthcare across the state. They have played perhaps the most critical role at the community level, where their commitment to serving some of our most vulnerable populations has helped pregnant women, adolescent girls and young children receive the health services they so desperately require. This is no small feat. Their achievements stand out against the backdrop of persistent societal restraints, which have long presented challenge after challenge to women who wish to work and establish for themselves a sense of independence within their homes and communities.
a. Healthcare is the domain of women in UP
b. Involvement of women in improving accessibility to healthcare in UP
c. UP healthcare is boosted by women
d. Community based efforts can improve government sectors
1. a. Overcoming the hurdles in Uber’s testing of self-driving program
2. c. Characteristics of Airbnb’s latest offering.
3. a. Liverpool’s loss of star players
4. a. How patriarchy determines the gender roles for women
5. d. How GDM is relatively unknown despite awareness about diabetes in general
6. b. Technology can help mediate risks in the agricultural sector
7. b. Electoral enthusiasm is analogous to excitement regarding marriage
8. a. Impact of demonetisation on those with vested economic interests in the education system
9. c. The overwhelming emphasis that is provided to skin colour in the country.
10. b. Involvement of women in improving accessibility to healthcare in UP
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